Video Clips:  Stone Weathering Kinetics and Processes using ESEM* and Time-Lapse Methods

Research Program on Rock Weathering and Salinization:  

Dynamic experiments documenting the action of salt weathering, salt attack, deliquescence, clay expansion, and fungal hyphae in stone

Processes in Art Conservation and Heritage Science are often best experienced visually. 

These videos illustrate how materials behave at different scales of time and magnification. 

They also help answer common research questions and catalyze related research. How is stress in pores generated? Why is damage to stone often related to salts and clays? 

*ESEM = Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope

For more information and to see a larger version, please click on the clip of interest. 

The use of these videos for educational purposes is encouraged.

Special thanks to my colleagues Tiziana Lombardo, David Carson, Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro, Alison Sawdy, Adrain Heritage, Stefan Simon, and visiting scientists Hans-Jürgen Schwarz and Leo Pel for their significant contributions to this research.

Sodium Sulfate

NaCl Behavior

Magnesium Sulfate

Clay and Biofilm behavior using the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM)

Sodium Sulfate -Stone Flaking and Efflorescence

Salt Mixture Behavior

NaCl Deliquescence

Sodium Sulfate - Humidity Cycling

CaCl and Hygroscopicity

NaNO3 Behavior

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