Video Clips:  Stone Weathering Kinetics and Processes using ESEM* and Time-Lapse Methods

 
ESEM_Clip_1__NaCl_-_Deliquescence_and_crystallization_cycle.html
Salt_Weathering_-_Lab_Clip_2__Evaporation,_subsurface_crystallization_of_Sodium_Sulfate_and_damage_-_Time_Lapse.html
ESEM_Clip_4__Copan_Biofilm_-_Expansion_and_contraction_sequence.html
ESEM_Clip_6__NaNO3_NaCl_mixture_-_Deliquescence_and_crystallization_sequence.html
ESEM_Clip_5__NaNO3_-_Deliquescence_and_crystallization_sequence.html
ESEM_Clip_2__Laetoli_Clay_-_Expansion_and_contraction_sequence.html
ESEM_Clip_7__NaSO4_-_Deliquescence_and_crystallization_sequence.html
Salt_Weathering_-_Field_Clip_1__Magnesium_sulfate_mixture_recrystallization_and_flaking_on_condensation_-_Time_Lapse.html
Salt_Weathering_-_Lab_Clip_1__Evaporation,_crystallization_of_Sodium_Sulfate_-_Time_Lapse.html
ESEM_Clip_8__NaSO4_-_Behavior_with_RH_cycling_-_Eric_Doehne.html
ESEM_Clip_3__Copan_Clay_-_Expansion_and_contraction_sequence.html

NaNO3 Behavior

Clay and Biofilm behavior using the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM)

Sodium Sulfate - Humidity Cycling

Magnesium Sulfate

NaCl Deliquescence

Sodium Sulfate -Stone Flaking and Efflorescence

Research Program on Rock Weathering and Salinization: 

Dynamic experiments documenting the action of salt weathering, salt attack, deliquescence, clay expansion, and fungal hyphae in stone

Special thanks to colleagues Tiziana Lombardo, David Carson, Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro, Alison Sawdy, Adrain Heritage, Stefan Simon, and visiting scientists Hans-Jürgen Schwarz and Leo Pel.

Processes in Art Conservation and Heritage Science are often best experienced visually.

These videos illustrate how materials behave at different scales of time and magnification.

They also help answer common research questions and catalyze related research. How is stress in pores generated? Why is damage to stone often related to salts and clays?

*ESEM = Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope

For more information and to see a larger version, please click on the clip of interest.

The use of these videos for educational purposes is encouraged.

Salt Mixture Behavior

Sodium Sulfate

CaCl and Hygroscopicity

NaCl Behavior

Salt_Weathering_-_Lab_Clip_3__Evaporation,_surface_efflorescence_of_Sodium_Sulfate_and_minor_damage_-_Time_Lapse.html
Behavior_of_Salts_-_Lab_Time-Lapse_of_CaCl_solution_and_H2O_solution.html
Behavior_of_Salts_-_Lab_Time-Lapse_of_NaCl_kinetics_with_wind_and_RH.html